First Transposition Cipher in History It was firstly used by Greeks and Spartans for military secrecy, 15th Century B.C. as Scytale Cipher. A Scytale Cipher is simply a wooden stick around which a strip of leather is wrapped. Sender writes the message along the length of the stick and unwinds the strip, where letters are … Continue reading III. Transposition Cipher

Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) at the center of M87 (a.k.a Virgo A), April 10th 2019 by Katie Bouman What is a Black Hole ? Briefly, a Black Hole is nothing but an empty space that is a great amount of matter packed into a very small area where the gravitational field of a black hole is so … Continue reading Introduction to Black Holes

Biography - An Expressionist Painter Chagall was born in Vitebsk, Russia (today's Belarus) in 1887, as the son of a very religious Hasidic-Jewish family, under the name Moshe Segall. He was the eldest of 8 siblings and had a happy childhood. In the early years of his life, he was mostly influenced by Jewish traditions … Continue reading Marc Chagall

Brute Force Attack As the name suggests, "Brute Force Attack", the process is based on testing all possible keys until find the correct key. Let's consider that the attacker finds out the correct key after trials. We have 4 keys such as, k_1-(00), k_2-(01), k_3-(10), k_4-(11) where information entropy of the system is 2 bits … Continue reading II. Information Entropy & Cryptography (Brute Force and Cryptanalysis)

Biography -Master of Abstract Art Movement Kandinsky was born on December 4th ( 16th in Gregorian calendar) , 1866 in Moscow. His father Wassily was a wealthy tea merchant whose family comes from the border region between Mongolia and Manchuria and his mother Lydia was comes from a noble Moscow family. Due to his parents interest … Continue reading Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky

Dr. C. Shannon Information Entropy The information entropy (a.k.a Shannon’s Entropy) describes the disorder of the system. Let’s consider coin flipping system, where there are two possibilities for output such as head or tail. Hence, we may consider the system with 1-bit information (e.g. “0” for head and “1” for tail) and there is %50 chance … Continue reading Information Entropy (Simplified)

Cryptography Terminology Cryptography, the study of encryption and decryption techniques. Cryptanalysis, codebreaking and deciphering ciphertext without the key. Cryptology, the field of cryptography and cryptology. Alice, Bob & Eve Framework Alice sends a message to Bob and Eve (stands for eaves dropper) wants to get the message. Here; there are, classical (e.g. Caesar cipher) and modern … Continue reading I. Cryptography: 101