Light Emitting Diodes (LED’s) are solid state devices that are used for their light emission. LED’s work on the principle called electroluminescence. Electroluminescence is the process of electron and hole recombination through the application of an electric fields. When forward biasing a LED using a battery (or any other direct current source), electrons and holes … Continue reading The Invention of Blue Light Emitting Diodes

Why there is such thing called Quantum Mechanics ? Since the classical Newtonian physics fails while considering behavior of a system; that is very small, that travels very fast, that subjects very strong gravity etc. in early 1900's German physicist Max Planck publishes his study "the effect of radiation on a blackbody substance" and introduced … Continue reading I. Introduction to Quantum Mechanics

After mentioned about Asymmetric Cryptography overview, with this article we are going to touch on D-H key exchange, at first, we are going to take a look at discrete logarithm. Discrete Logarithm We know that, for any numbers "a" & "b" and any function "y" such that y = a^(b) can be described as b … Continue reading IX. Diffie-Hellman(-Merkle) Key Exchange

Prime Factorization Consider prime numbers "p" and "q " such that, there exist a number "n", multiple of "p"and "q" (p x q = n). Now, let's consider very large prime numbers (e.g. 300 digits long ) "p" and "q" such that, there exist a very large number (e.g. 4000 digits long) "n",multiple of "p"and … Continue reading VIII. RivestShamirAdleman / RSA Cipher

Invention -Asymmetric Key Cryptography The main idea on the development of Asymmetric Key Cryptography, was to avoid two problems, key distribution and digital signatures. Although it was first discovered by M. J. Williamson who worked under GCHQ, his work was kept secret. Few years later, it was first published by W. Diffie and M. Hellman … Continue reading VII. Asymmetric Cryptography: Overview

Biography -The Greatest Experimentalist Martha Rutherford with Eva and (left to right) Charles, Ernest, Jim, and Herbert, 1885. Ernest was 14. Credit: Tyree, Rutherford family. Imagine a village boy who shaped the science of our century. Not only with his own work also with his generations of incredible students. You guessed it right that boy is … Continue reading Ernest Rutherford

Why there are Operation Modes for Block Ciphers ? Simply, operation modes are methods that allow the safe use of a block of passwords under a single key. They were created specifically for use in encryption and authentication. Although they are associated with symmetric cryptography, in theory, they can also be used in public key … Continue reading VI. Operation Modes For Block Ciphers

Existentialism: Brief Definition The issue of human being has been taken seriously by Socrates mid- 300s B.C. Yet, theoretically, it was firstly come up with early 20th century by Søren Kierkegaard from French-word "Exister" ("Occurred"). Simply, it has been considered as the perception of existence, i.e. the way individuals find themselves existing in the world … Continue reading Existentialism: 101

To use below python code, copy & paste to any text editor (e.g. Sublime Text) as a python file. Then, all you need to do is to run on your command line or terminal (Pyhton3 needs to be installed). Have Fun ! #DataEncryptionStandard Encryption Protocol Python(3.6) Implementation by otapsin for CryptoQuantus. #Adapted from, ""https://academic.csuohio.edu/yuc/security/Chapter_06_Data_Encription_Standard.pdf"" #Initial … Continue reading DES Python Script

2-DES (Double) Double-DES has two different encryption phases with two different keys (K_1, K_2) such that: Ciphertext (Encryption): Enc (K2, Enc(K1, P)) Plaintext (Decryption): Dec(K1, Dec(K2, C)) Meet in the Middle Attack Meet-in-the-middle is a known plaintext attack, that targets block cipher cryptographic functions, relies on exponentially reducing the number of brute force permutations required to … Continue reading V. 2,3-DES & AES